The aim of the
Iranian Journal of Ophthalmology (IrJO), published since 1947 has been to
promote the quality of the journal, and to have a small part in the progression
of the ophthalmic sciences in the world. We do expect and demand our colleagues
from Iran and abroad to help us to achieve this precious goal. We are thankful
to all those who have so far cooperated with us, our professional staff,
editorial board, reviewers and particularly the faithful authors who have done
their best to nourish our journal.
the Iranian Society of Ophthalmology has decided to take a further step to
improve the presentations and internationalization of IrJO by inviting Elsevier
B.V. a worldwide known organization to host and share the responsibility of our
journal. Therefore in the near future our journal will be viewed on Elsevier
website, and here in Iran it will be published in a limited number for those
who desire to receive the journal.
this issue of IRJO Hashemi et al are concerned about residents’ education
particularly in cataract surgery, phacoemulsification. “Revisiting the cataract
surgery curriculum for ophthalmology residents: a narrative review”. One of the
most common intraocular operations done by residents which may have many
complications such as posterior capsule rupture (PCR). They have suggestion to
reduce such complications. The rate of PCR has decreased considerably during
the past 10 years. They explain that the Iranian residents mostly use
assimilator style of learning relay on diagrams, lectures, and self-teaching
materials.1 Today active learning and problem-solving is more
educative.2 The first year residents in Iran are not allowed in the
operation rooms while in 2002 75% of the first year residents in USA participate
and assisted operations and 40% of them exercised surgeries.
Nejad et al have visited the schools of deaf boys in Tehran to report “The
prevalence of refractive errors and binocular anomalies in students of deaf
boys schools in Tehran”. Examining 158 boys, they found anomalies in 52.8% of students.
Astigmatism was the highest, 31%. In Iran the prevalence of astigmatism in
normal school has been reported to be 4.8% to 18%.3 Anisometropia
19%, while it has been reported to be 3.7% in normal schools.4
Amblyopia was reported to be 13.9% in deaf schools. In Iran it has been found
to be 0.9% to 4.3%.3 In this report 11.3% had strabismus. 1.3% to
3.7% has been the normal range in Iran.5,6 They found that ocular
abnormalities increased with severity of deafness which requires a special care
for these children.
an article titled “Can OCT pachymetry identify keratoconus suspects?”
Mohammadian and coworkers have investigated 32 keratoconus (KC) suspects and 36
healthy eyes using OCT Visante. In all cases a significant difference was
observed. The KC patients had a thinner cornea and had more variations and
changes in corneal thickness. They propose that anterior segment OCT could be
used to detect KC, along the other sophisticated instruments.
and coauthors have presented “Comparison of two methods for the treatment of
primary pterygium: amniotic membrane transplantation plus intraoperative
mitomycin C, versus conjunctival rotational autograft plus intraoperative
mitomycin C”. Ninety-two eyes of 92 patients have been randomized in two
groups. Forty-three eyes in amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) and 49 eyes
in conjunctival rotational autograft (CRA) groups. There has been no
significant difference in sex, age, pterygium size and follow-up period. The
mean conjunctival size of the lesion in AMT group has been 3.4 mm and in CRA
group 3.3 mm. After 10 months of follow-up they have observed 20.93% of
recurrence in AMT and 8.16% in CRA group. In their discussion they express that
although the pathogenesis of pterygium is not known7 but ultraviolet
exposure can have a role in pterygium formation.8 They conclude that
although no statistical significant difference was observed in these two
methods but the recurrence rate was less in the CRA group.
and Abrishami from Mashhad University of Medical Sciences have presented their
investigation “Comparison of amplitudes of fusional vergence in patients with asthenopic
asymptomatic near exophoria”. In this cross-sectional analysis they have
studied 102 patients with near exophoria and asthenopia, and compared them
(control group) with 86 near exophoric patients without any symptoms. They have
excluded hyperopes and all patients have had vision of 20/25
or better. The patients’ age was 15 to 35 years and the mean age was similar in
both groups. They found significant difference in near negative fusional
vergence (NFV), NFV recovery and far NFV recovery between the two groups. They
explain that although it was assumed that asthenophia is caused by convergence
insufficiacy,9 it seems that asthenopia in patients with near
exophoria can be provoked by increased amplitude of negative vergence. They
conclude that CI frequency causes asthenopia but increased NFV amplitude may
also be involved in this process.
article titled “Age-related macular degeneration in an Iranian population”
presented by Hashemi and coauthors has been derived from the first phase of the
Shahroud Eye Cohort Study conducted in Iran. In this cross-sectional urban
population, using multistage cluster sampling in 2009-2010, 6,311 cases have
been selected. They were 40 to 64 year-old. The prevalence of age-related
macular degeneration (AMD) was found to be 4.7% (3.1% bilateral, 1.6
unilateral). It was significantly more frequent in older age 2.2% in (40-44
year-old), 8.5% (60 to 64 year-old), male sex (5.5% males, 4.2% females) and
shorter ocular axial length. The prevalence of AMD in Iran was found lower from
both American and European studies.10,11
optica and nucleotide variations of Aquaporin-4 gene” has been presented by
Miri et al from the Neurological Research Center of Theran University.
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) an autoimmune and rare disease caused by deposition
of anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) IgG in central nervous system. When AQP4 – antibody
is not found in the serum is called seronegative NMO. Although, the clinical
manifestation and response to treatment are similar in both cases. In this work
24 seronegative cases have been investigated. The frequency of nucleotide
variations was found to be similar to previous reports. However, a variation
was found in 7% of the alleles in the intronic region between exon 1 and 2
which could affect antigenicity of AQP4 and play a role in the clinical and
immunological presentation of the disease.
and coauthors have conducted a study titled “Comparison of intravenous
lidocaine versus hyoscine on prevention of oculocardiac reflex in strabismus
surgery” to compare the effects of intravenous lidocaine and hyoscine in
reducing the rates of occurrence of oculocardiac reflex (OCR) during strabismus
surgery. They showed that although both drugs were somewhat effective in
reducing the rates of occurrence of OCR, but did not find any statistically
significant difference between their effects.
Adili-Aghdam F. [Learning styles of medical residents of different disciplines
in Tehran University of Medical Sciences]. Razi Journal of Medical Sciences
Zúñiga D, Pedrals N, Padilla O, Mena B. Medical students' change in learning
styles during the course of the undergraduate program: from ‘thinking and
watching’ to ‘thinking and doing'. Canadian Medical Education Journal
H, Fotouhi A, Khabazkhoob M, Heraveian J, Yekta AA. Prevalence and risk factors
of refractive errors among schoolchildren in Mashhad, 2006-2007. Iranian
Journal of Ophthalmology 200820(3):3-9.
Laatikainen L, Erkkilä H. Refractive errors and other
ocular findings in school children. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 198058(1):129-36.
Flynn JT, Hodges AV, Balkany TJ. Ophthalmologic abnormalities in the pediatric
cochlear implant population. Am J Ophthalmol 1994118(1):70-6.
Regenbogen L, Godel
V. Ocular deficiencies in deaf children. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus
Young AL, Tam
PM, Leung GY, Cheng LL, Lam PT, Lam DS. Prospective study on the safety and
efficacy of combined conjunctival rotational autograft with intraoperative
0.02% mitomycin C in primary pterygium excision. Cornea 200928(2):166-9.
Hollows FC. Pterygium and ultraviolet radiation: a positive correlation. Br J
Convergence insufficiency and its current treatment. Curr Opin Ophthalmol
Klein R, Klein
BE, Linton KL. Prevalence of age-related maculopathy. The Beaver Dam Eye Study.
Epidemiological (SEE) Study Group. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration
in Spain. Br J Ophthalmol 201195(7):931-6.