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:: Volume 25, Issue 2 (Iranian Journal of Ophthalmology 2013) ::
2013, 25(2): 90-106 Back to browse issues page
Review Article: Ocular Effects of Sulfur Mustard
Yunes Panahi Dr., Mostafa Naderi Dr., Mohammad Ali Zare Dr., Zohreh Poursaleh Dr. *
, z_poursaleh@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (10014 Views)

Purpose : To review current knowledge about ocular effects of sulfur mustard (SM) and the associated histopathologic findings and clinical manifestations

Methods : Literature review of medical articles (human and animal studies) was accomplished using PubMed, Scopus and ISI databases. A total of 274 relevant articles in English were retrieved and reviewed thoroughly.

Results : Eyes are the most sensitive organs to local toxic effects of mustard gas. Ocular injuries are mediated through different toxic mechanisms including: biochemical damages, biomolecular and gene expression modification, induction of immunologic and inflammatory reactions, disturbing ultrastructural architecture of the cornea, and long-lasting corneal denervation. The resulting ocular injuries can roughly be categorized into acute or chronic complications. Most of the patients recover from acute injuries, but a minority of victims will suffer from chronic ocular complications. Mustard gas keratopathy (MGK) is a devastating late complication of SM intoxication that proceeds from limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD).

Conclusion : SM induces several different damaging changes in case of ocular exposure hence leading to a broad spectrum of ocular manifestations in terms of severity, timing and form. Unfortunately, no effective strategy has been introduced yet to inhibit or restore these damaging changes.


Iranian Journal of Ophthalmology 201325(2):90-106 © 2013 by the Iranian Society of Ophthalmology

Keywords: Sulfur Mustard, Mustard Gas Keratopathy, Corneal Injury, Ocular Complication
Full-Text [PDF 404 kb]   (2683 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Review | Subject: Anterior segment
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Panahi Y, Naderi M, Zare M A, Poursaleh Z. Review Article: Ocular Effects of Sulfur Mustard. Iranian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2013; 25 (2) :90-106
URL: http://irjo.org/article-1-807-en.html

Volume 25, Issue 2 (Iranian Journal of Ophthalmology 2013) Back to browse issues page
مجله چشم پزشکی ایران Iranian Journal of Ophthalmology
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